By Dr. B. Brenner, E. Eisenberg (auth.), R. Jacob, Hj. Just, Ch. Holubarsch (eds.)
Assessment of cardiac energetics on the point of ATP-synthesis, chemomechanical strength transformation and full organ dynamics as a functionality of haemodynamic load, ventricular configuration and oxygen- and substrates provide is easy to knowing cardiac functionality lower than physiological and pathophysiological (hypertrophy, hypoxia, ischaemia and middle failure) stipulations. additionally, cardiac energetics might be a big attention within the selection and alertness of substances particularly with regards to vasodilators, inotropic brokers and in cardioprotective measures. in simple terms by way of contemplating energetics on the subcellular, mobile, and whole-heart point we will be able to arrive at a greater realizing of cardiac functionality and eventually larger scientific judgement and drug treatment. Quantification of myocardial energetics also will support to figure out the optimum time for surgical interventions corresponding to valvular alternative or aneurysm resection. the current quantity is the end result of a world symposium on cardiac energetics held in Gargellen/Montafon (Austria), June 1986. The contributions will surely aid bridge the present hole among simple study concerning remoted constructions and that regarding the total organ, at the one hand, and render the implications derived from uncomplicated learn appropriate to medical difficulties, at the different hand.
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Additional info for Cardiac Energetics: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Implications
C) External calcium ion concentration on the activation heat (mJ/g/beat) given by the intercept of enthalpystress relations separately determined at each calcium level. Data of . Firstly, there exist species differences in the activation heat component. 6 mJ/g) . Corresponding data for dog papillary muscles do not exist but a species size-dependent (higher) value would reduce the discrepancy. Secondly, and more importantly, the activation component of cardiac metabolism has probably been underestimated in previous myothermic studies.
1 GO = -32kJ/mol at pH 7, and [ATP] [Cr] [ADP]= Kck[PCr] , where Kck has the value of 160 at pH 7 . Any differences in Mg2 + content between these muscles were ignored. 1 Despite these large variations in contents, the free energy available from ATP for the different muscles is in the range of - 50 to - 60 kJ /mol; the exception appears to be fast-twitch skeletal muscle in which, because of the very low [ADP], the calculated L1G~bs is higher ( - 72 kJ /mol). , muscles in which a metabolic stress due to contractile activity depletes the per content.
Now in skeletal muscle preparations, a pre-shortened muscle yields a considerably higher estimate of activation heat than a pre-stretched muscle - presumably due to residual cross-bridge activity . But it is not possible to stretch papillary muscle enough to reliably estimate the intercept of the heat-stress relation because stretching much beyond lmax damages the muscle. Hence it has often been suggested that the myothermic technique overestimates the activation component of active metabolism.
Cardiac Energetics: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Implications by Dr. B. Brenner, E. Eisenberg (auth.), R. Jacob, Hj. Just, Ch. Holubarsch (eds.)