By C. Wüster, T. Cowell
Complement factor: Hormone study 2000, Vol. fifty four, No. 1
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Extra info for Analytical Methods in Clinical Osteology: Useful Predictors of Long-Term Outcomes or a Waste of Time and Money? 4th Kigs Kims Expert Meeting on Growth ... Taormina, November (Hormone Research)
The two outer dashed lines suggest the combined modelling and remodelling effects. DW, the disuse window; AW, the adapted window, as found in normally adapted adults; MOW, the mild overload window, as found in healthy growing mammals; POW, the pathological overload window. Reproduced, with permission, from Frost . Table 1. Examples of local and circulating non-mechanical factors that could influence bone strength and ‘mass’ Hormones Vitamins Dietary calcium Other minerals Paracrine effects Autocrine effects Amino acids Lipids Gene expression Ethnic origin Gender Some diseases Ageing Apoptosis Medications, toxins, other artificial agents D metabolites Cytokines Cell–cell interactions The genome Occupation Malnutrition Receptors and ligands amounts of bone (conservation-mode remodelling), turning bone over without causing permanent bone losses.
A High-resolution spinal computed tomography (CT) with post-processing steps used to assess the trabecular structure from a CT image. B The structure is segmented by defining a boundary between the cortical and trabecula bone. C The trabecular network is then reduced to a binary image, which is then thinned to produce D a representation of the trabecular form. Reproduced, with permission, from Genant et al. . 1 cm3). 5 mm ! 5 mm) to provide images of the spine and hip that display, clearly, structural information.
3]. 1 cm3). 5 mm ! 5 mm) to provide images of the spine and hip that display, clearly, structural information. Such scanners, however, require a higher radiation exposure than is employed for standard QCT. In addition, extraction of the quantitative structural information is difficult and the results vary substantially according to the threshold and image processing techniques used. This is a result of substantial partial volume effects at this resolution relative to the typical dimensions of trabeculae (100–400 Ìm) and trabecular spaces (200–2,000 Ìm).
Analytical Methods in Clinical Osteology: Useful Predictors of Long-Term Outcomes or a Waste of Time and Money? 4th Kigs Kims Expert Meeting on Growth ... Taormina, November (Hormone Research) by C. Wüster, T. Cowell