By Nicusor Iftimia, William R. Brugge, Daniel X. Hammer
This booklet presents scholars, academics, researchers and clinicians with a powerful and tested resource of knowledge on complicated optical applied sciences that express actual promise of being translated to medical use.
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Study on biomaterials has been becoming long ago 10 years as a result of the medical wishes in organ and tissue alternative and regeneration. Bioceramics are compatible applicants for plenty of scientific functions, comparable to bone-like scaffolds, and bone regeneration fabrics. They contain calcium phosphates, silica-based ceramics, reminiscent of bioglasses and mesoporous silica, carbon-based fabrics reminiscent of carbon nanotubes and graphene, and alumina, zirconia, and silicon nitride.
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Additional resources for Advances in Optical Imaging for Clinical Medicine (Wiley Series in Biomedical Engineering and Multi-Disciplinary Integrated Systems)
X-ray ﬁlms are taken with the dummy wires placed inside the applicators and the dummy dwell positions are digitized in treatment planning software. The dose prescribed at a certain distance from the applicator is achieved by varying source location, source activity, or dwell times [15,39]. In modern brachytherapy, US, CT, or MR images are used to visualize the tumor and to perform the treatment planning. For example, real-time US imaging is used for LDR permanent radioactive seed implant for prostate carcinoma.
The light emitted is detected by the photomultiplier tubes, located behind the crystal. Multiheaded gamma cameras can provide accelerated SPECT acquisition. A computer is used to apply a tomographic reconstruction algorithm (ﬁltered backprojection) to the multiple projections, yielding a three-dimensional data set. This reconstructed image reﬂects the distribution and relative concentration of radioactive tracer elements present in the organs and tissues imaged. The pixel size ranges from 3 to 6 mm.
In modern multienergy machines, the electron beam that exits the horizontal waveguide is bent vertically down (90 or 270◦ ) in a magnetic ﬁeld, then hits a scattering foil used to ﬂatten the cross-sectional beam proﬁle, which otherwise will have a Gaussian-like shape. This ﬂattened beam is then collimated using special collimation systems and directed toward the patient for treatment delivery. The photon beams are created through a bremsstrahlung process: the electron beam created as described above hits a target made from a high-atomicnumber material.
Advances in Optical Imaging for Clinical Medicine (Wiley Series in Biomedical Engineering and Multi-Disciplinary Integrated Systems) by Nicusor Iftimia, William R. Brugge, Daniel X. Hammer