Download PDF by Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker: Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems

By Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker

▓ Book's spouse Website
http://www.abstractionthebook.com

▓ Abstraction is a primary mechanism underlying either human and synthetic notion, illustration of data, reasoning and studying. This mechanism performs a very important function in lots of disciplines, significantly machine Programming, usual and synthetic imaginative and prescient, advanced platforms, synthetic Intelligence and computing device studying, artwork, and Cognitive Sciences. This booklet first presents the reader with an summary of the notions of abstraction proposed in quite a few disciplines by way of evaluating either commonalities and changes. After discussing the characterizing homes of abstraction, a proper version, the KRA version, is gifted to catch them. This version makes the thought of abstraction simply appropriate through the advent of a suite of abstraction operators and abstraction styles, reusable throughout various domain names and purposes. it's the effect of abstraction in man made Intelligence, advanced platforms and laptop studying which creates the center of the publication. A basic framework, in keeping with the KRA version, is gifted, and its pragmatic energy is illustrated with 3 case reports: Model-based analysis, Cartographic Generalization, and studying Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models.
∙ Collects, describes and compares a variety of ways to abstraction proposed within the literature of assorted fields
∙ Discusses why abstraction performs a key position in AI artifacts, utilizing concrete examples, resembling cartographic generalization and human/robot interaction
∙ presents a conceptualization framework to layout potent systems

▒ Book's Preface
When we begun scripting this e-book we have been conscious of the complexity of the task,
but we didn't think that it will take us nearly 3 years to accomplish it.
Furthermore, throughout the research and comparability of the literature from different
fields, it in actual fact emerged that very important effects were completed, yet that much
more very important ones are nonetheless out of achieve. Then, the spirit of the publication replaced, by
itself, from the meant review of the previous to a stimulus for the longer term. We
would be at liberty if the reader, rather than being content material with the tips we propose,
would take them as a motivation and place to begin to head past them.
We current a wide number of works on abstraction in numerous disciplines;
nonetheless many suitable contributions to the sphere were unavoidably left out,
owing to the sheer volume of pages they'd fill. We express regret for the missing
citations.
In this ebook we current a version of abstraction, the KRA version, yet this can be not
the center of the e-book. It has a restricted scope and serves major reasons: on the
one hand it exhibits that numerous earlier proposals of abstraction theories have a
common root and will be dealt with inside of a unified framework, and, at the different, it
offers a computational surroundings for acting abstraction via utilizing a collection of
available, domain-independent operators (programs). actually, there's nonetheless a gap
between normal abstraction theories, usually based logical formulations of representation
changes, and urban ways that seriously depend upon particular domain
characteristics. The KRA version is intended to be anything in among: the
domain-independence of the abstraction operators achieves either generality (it can
cover a huge spectrum of functions and alertness domains), and synergy (by
instantiating in numerous contexts a few code written only one time).
Independently of the version, we think that the fundamental rules on which it relies
are extra vital than the version itself. those principles are definitely debatable; some
reader may imagine that our view of abstraction is precisely what he/she has always
looked for, while another could imagine that abstraction is completely something
else. either reactions are welcome: what concerns is to set off curiosity within the subject
and stimulate extra research.
The ebook isn't really meant to be a textbook: it really is detailed to scientists operating on
or utilizing abstraction innovations, with out hindrance of fields. machine scientists,
Artificial Intelligence researchers, artists, cognitive scientists, mathematicians, and curious minds can learn the publication. a few components are extra formalized, they usually may
look complicated initially sight. even though, we think that the best a part of the
content is graspable via intuition.

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Sample text

Even if trying to link abstract knowledge to perception may seem a counterintuitive approach, we will see in Chap. 6 that this view can provide the basis for a model of abstraction well suited to capture relevant aspects of concept representation. Actually, Goldstone and Barsalou convincingly argue that there are mechanisms shared between cognition and perception that allow abstraction to enter the picture; for instance, selectivity lets the attention concentrate on particular aspects of a perception, blurring (involuntary or purposeful) removes details from further processing, and object-to-variable binding allows perception to have an internal structure as concepts do.

The microscopic explanation is more detailed than the macroscopic law, but the latter applies to a wider range of systems, and, then, it is more abstract. ” Before concluding, we mention, as a curiosity, that, in the Greek mythology there existed some minor gods who were called “Abstractions”, and who were personifications of some abstract concepts such as the “vengeance” (Nemesis), or the “death” (Thanatos). 2 Natural Language As we have already mentioned, in natural languages there is a distinction between abstract and concrete words.

Com/definition/Abstraction_(mathematics). ” Then, Ro¸su shows that the notion of behavioral abstraction is a special case of a more general abstraction technique, namely information hiding. Another technical notion of abstraction is presented by Antonelli in a recent paper [20]. 1), introduced by Wright [569] and Hale [230] and reported in Sect. 1, he defines an abstraction operator, which assigns an object—a “number”—to the equivalence classes generated by the equinumerosity relation, in such a way that each class has associated a different object.

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Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems by Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker


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